Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Book II, Chapters 15-26
                                            (Kennedy: pp. 169-215; Roberts: pp. 62-84)

                                    Book II: Study Questions 21-30

21. How does Aristotle define "good birth" (pp. 169-170)? What does he seem to mean
by that, and does it seem relevant for rhetoric? Why?/Why not?

22. How does Aristotle think that wealth affects character (pp. 170-172)? Can you think
of a situation in which this could be important for an orator to know?

23. In a court of law, a judge is often required to decide whether or not the accused
committed a certain act. Under what conditions did Aristotle think it most probable,
or even certain, that a person would do something (pp. 176-178)?

24. For which type of oratory did Aristotle find the use of fables most suitable
(pp. 178-181)? Why?

25. How does Aristotle define a "maxim"? Why do uncultivated minds like them, and how
should an orator "hunt" for appropriate maxims (pp. 182-186)?

26. What responsibility, if any, does Aristotle find for the orator who is building
enthymemes (arguments based on probability) to grasp the relevant facts, or to
address the concerns and opinions of the judge(s)?

27. Which of Aristotle's twenty-eight topoi ("common topics," "lines or strategies of
argument") seem most practical or useful (pp. 190-204)?

28. What kind of fallacy does Aristotle find in the way Demades blamed the policy of
Demosthenes "as the cause of all evils" (pp. 208-210)?

29. What kind of things did Protagoras say which Aristotle seems to have regarded as
"fallacious probability" (p. 210, footnote 245; check an encyclopedia or other reference
book if necessary)?

30. Why does Aristotle say that "the defendant always has an advantage" when the
argument against him is based upon probability (pp. 211-213)?