Latin Grammatical Constructions 
                                               
N.J.Lund/OTS/7.30.04                                       

TYPE

DEFINITION

CLUES

TRANSLATION

ABL. ABSOL. p.155

describes gen. circumstances; usu.
sep. by commas

noun & participle in abla. case

“with” + abl. noun as subject
+ pres. act.. part. = “-ing…;”
+ perf. pass. part. = “having been…”

INDIR. STATE. p.162

indirect report of something thought

after a verb of speech, mental activity or sense perception  + infin. verb + accus. subject

"that" + infin.=indicative
(pres. infin. =same time;
 perf. infin.=before; fut= time
 after main verb)

PASS. PERIPH. p.157

expresses “ought;”
obligation

fut.pass.part.('nd') + form of 'sum'

"must/should/ought to be"

JUSS. SUBJUN. p.188

expresses a command

main verb subjunctive;'ne'- neg.

"let/may" + "me/he/him/her/
us/them" [do such & such]

PURPOSE      p.189

answers ?: "why...done?"

ut/ne+subjunct.verb in subord. clause

"to/in order to” or "that…may" (pres.); "might" (imperfect)

RESULT         p.196

answers ?: "what ...result?"

sic/ita/tam/tantus/non/nihil + ut + subjunc. verb

"that" + result in indicative

INDIR. QUES. p.204

reports a ? indirectly

after a verb of speech, mental activity or sense perception  quis/quid/quam/
cur/utrum/uter/ubi or –ne + subjunct.

trans. verb as indicative
pres & impf.= same tense
perf. & plupf.= time before main verb

CUM CLAUSE p.211

describes types of circumstance
(causal, etc.)

"cum" + indic. or subjunc. Verbs

trans. subjunc. as indicative:
"since, when, although;"
pres. &  impf.=same as main
perf. &  plupf= before main

PROVISO CL.  p.223

describes some restriction

"dummodo" ("ne" in neg. clauses)

begin "provided that/so long as;"
trans. subj. verb as indicative

CONDITIONS  p.228

expresses conditions

"si," "nisi," "etsi"

6 different verb pairs (see below)
     Condition/Conclusion

1.SimpleFactPresent

an indicative condition (1)

  2 pres. tense indic. verbs

  "if/if not/unless" + "is/is"'

2.SimpleFactPast

an indicative condition (2)

  perf. or imperf. Indic. verbs

  "if/if not/unless" + "did/was/were"

3.SimpleFactFuture
   (Future More Vivid)

an indicative condition (3)

  2 fut. (or fut. perf.)  indic. verbs

  "if/if not/unless" + "does/will"

4.Contr.toFactPres.

a subjunctive condition (1)

  2 imperf. tense subjunc. verbs

  "if/if not/unless" + "were/would"

5.Contr.toFactPast

a subjunctive condition (2)

  2 pluperf. tense subjunc. verbs

"if/if not/unless" + "had/would have"

6.FutureLessVivid

a subjunctive condition (3)

  2 pres. tense subjunc. Verbs

  "if/if not/unless" + "should/would"

JUSS. NOUN C. p.253

indirectly answers "what requested?"
indirect command

  main "begging verb" + ut/ne

trans. subj. as infinitive "to"

REL.CL.CHAR. p.269

describes gen/
indef/interrog/
or neg. chars.

sunt qui/quis est/qui/nemo est qui + subjunct. verb

"there is/are...who would/the sort of"

FEAR CLAUSE p.285

expresses fear or
apprehension

timeo/metuo/vereor + ut/ne
+ subjunct. verb

ne="that may/will/would/might;" ut="that may not/will/would/might not"

SUPINE             p.270

express. purpose, specification

perf. pass. participle ending in um/

um= "to;" ="(in respect) to"

GERUND/IVE   p.270

verbal noun/
verbal adjective

future passive "nd" participle

"-ing" (active)/  "to be" (passive)